Views: 22 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-05-07 Origin: Site
The volume of foreign trade exports is increasing. Recently, many foreign trade friends have come to inquire about the loading of containers.
"My goods are palletized, but there are half pallets that cannot be loaded."
"My goods are exported in bulk and mixed with FCL. How should I load the goods more appropriately?"
"I have about 22 tons in this batch. What type of cabinet is suitable?"
Today we will talk about all kinds of container loading.
First we need to understand the dimensions of the container:
When calculating the loading space, be sure to leave enough space, and remember not to exceed the actual height.
Below we will introduce the loading requirements of various types of packaged goods in detail through different cargo weights.
Wooden crates come in a wide variety of sizes and weights.
The problems that should be paid attention to when loading and fixing wooden boxes are:
1. When loading a relatively heavy small wooden box, the riding seam loading method can be used, so that the upper wooden box is pressed on the joint of the lower two wooden boxes, and the top layer must be fixed or plugged tightly;
2. When loading a small wooden box, if there is a large gap at the end of the box door, it must be fixed or supported by wooden boards and wooden strips;
3. When the heavy and large wooden box with a low center of gravity can only be installed in one layer and the bottom area of the box cannot be fully utilized, it should be installed in the center of the container, and the bottom horizontal direction must be fixed with square wooden bars;
4. For a wooden box with a high center of gravity, it is not enough to fix it close to the bottom, and it must be supported with wooden bars on it;
5. When loading a particularly heavy large wooden box, a concentrated load or an eccentric load is often formed, so there must be special fixing facilities to prevent the goods from contacting the front and rear walls of the container;
6. When loading the box, the steel belt is usually used to tighten it, or the elastic nylon belt or cloth belt is used instead of the steel belt.
Carton and bagged cargoes are usually loaded on pallets.
The carton can be fixed by sticking method between the upper and lower layers. After the bag is loaded, the size of the bag is required to be consistent with the size of the pallet, and the slippery bag should be fixed by sticking. The problems that should be paid attention to when loading and fixing pallets are:
1. If the size of the pallet can only fit one piece horizontally in the container, the goods must be placed in the center of the container and fixed with longitudinal dunnage;
2. When loading more than two layers of goods, regardless of whether the gap is horizontal or vertical, the bottom should be fixed with a stopper, and the upper pallet should be plugged with cross-stop wooden strips;
3. If the number of pallets is odd, the last pallet should be placed in the center, and the rope should be tightened through the tie ring;
4. When loading the frame container with pallet cargo, the weight of the front and rear, left and right of the container must be balanced. After loading, the goods should be tightened with straps, and the goods or containers should be covered with canvas or plastic film after loading;
5. The palletized goods in bags should be matched with pallets of different sizes according to the size of the bag to make full use of the volume of the container.
Carton is the most common type of containerized cargo, and is generally used to pack finer and lighter cargoes.
1. If the container is filled with large cartons of uniform size, there will be gaps. When the gap is about 10cm, it is generally not necessary to fix the goods, but when the gap is large, it needs to be fixed according to the specific conditions of the goods;
2. If cartons of different sizes are mixed, the size of the cartons should be reasonably matched to achieve tight stacking;
3. LCL cartons should be checked separately. Paper, nets, plywood, electrical pallets and other materials can be used for ticket separation, and chalk, tape, etc. can also be used for marking;
4. When the carton is not enough to fill a container, attention should be paid to the stacking height of the carton to meet the requirement of filling the bottom of the container.
The types of bag packaging include sacks, cloth bags, plastic bags, etc. The main cargoes are grain, coffee, cocoa, waste, cement, powdered chemicals, etc. Usually the bag packaging material has weak moisture resistance and water resistance, so after packing, it is best to lay plastic and other waterproof coverings on the top of the goods. Precautions:
1. The bagged goods are generally easy to collapse and slide, and can be fixed with adhesive, or insert a liner board and anti-skid rough paper in the middle of the bagged goods;
2. The bags are generally bulging and convex in the middle, and the commonly used stacking methods include the wall method and the cross method;
3. In order to prevent the bagged goods from being stacked too high and there is a danger of collapse, it is necessary to use tie-down appliances to fix them.
Barrels generally include various oil, liquid and powder chemicals, alcohol, syrup, etc. The packaging forms include iron drums, wooden drums, plastic drums, plywood drums and cardboard drums. Except for the traditional drum-shaped wooden barrels with the barrel mouth at the waist, the barrels are stacked vertically in the container with the barrel mouth upward. Since the barrel is cylindrical, the method of stacking and reinforcement in the box is determined by a certain specific size, so that it is coordinated with the size of the box.
1. The loading and fixing operation of iron barrels, 0.25 cubic meters (55 gallons) iron barrels are the most common in container transportation. This iron drum can be stacked in two layers in the container, and each 20-foot container can generally hold 80 drums. When loading, the barrels are required to be close to each other. For the iron barrels with convex elements on the barrels, in order to stagger the flanges between the barrels and the barrels, a pad should be placed every other row, and the same should be used when loading the second layer. The row that is not raised is also plywood, to stabilize the bucket load on the upper level.
2. For the loading and fixing operation of wooden barrels, wooden barrels are generally drum-shaped and have iron hoops at both ends. Since the cover is easy to be removed during vertical installation, horizontal loading is required in principle. When installing horizontally, place wooden wedges on both ends of the barrel. The height of the wooden wedges should make the center of the barrel leave the bottom of the box and prevent the waist of the barrel from being stressed.
3. The loading and fixing operation of cardboard drums. The loading method of cardboard drums is similar to that of iron drums, but its strength is weak, so care should be taken not to overturn and cause damage when packing. When loading, it must be installed vertically. The number of loading layers should be determined according to the strength of the barrel, and sometimes there should be certain restrictions. There must be plywood inserted between the upper and lower layers as a liner to disperse the load.
Precautions for Mixing:
1. Goods of different shapes and packages should not be packed together as much as possible;
2. The goods that will seep dust, liquid, moisture, odor, etc. from the packaging should not be placed with other goods as much as possible.
3. Light-weight goods are placed on top of relatively heavy-weight goods;
4. Goods with weak packaging strength should be placed on the goods with strong packaging strength;
5. Liquid goods and cleaning goods should be placed under other goods as much as possible;
6. Goods with sharp corners or protruding parts should be covered to avoid damage to other goods.
Container Loading Skills
There are usually three methods for on-site packing of container goods: that is, all the containers are loaded manually, the forklifts (forklifts) are used to move them into the containers, and then the containers are stacked manually and all containers are loaded mechanically, such as pallets (pallets). ) The cargo forklift is stowed in the container.
1. In any case, when the goods are loaded into the container, the weight of the goods in the container cannot exceed the maximum loading capacity of the container, that is, the total amount of the container minus the self-weight of the container. Under normal circumstances, the gross weight and dead weight will be marked on the door of the container.
2. The unit weight of each container is fixed, so when loading the same kind of goods in the container, as long as the density of the goods is known, it can be determined whether it is heavy or light. Cheng Qiwei said that if the density of the cargo is greater than the unit weight of the container, it is a heavy cargo, and vice versa, it is a light cargo. Timely and clearly distinguishing these two different situations is very important to improve the efficiency of container installation.
3. When loading, the load on the bottom of the container should be balanced, especially the situation where the center of gravity of the load is on one end should be strictly prohibited.
4. Avoid generating concentrated loads. "For example, when loading heavy goods such as machinery and equipment, the bottom of the box should be covered with lining materials such as wood boards to disperse the load as much as possible. The average safe load per unit area of the bottom surface of a standard container is roughly: 20-foot container is 1330x9.8N/m, 40 feet The container is 980x9.8N/m2.
5. When using manual loading, pay attention to whether there are loading and unloading signs such as "cannot be inverted", "flat" and "vertical" on the package. Be sure to use the loading tool correctly, and the use of hand hooks is prohibited for bundled goods. The goods in the container should be packed neatly and tightly stacked. For loose bales and fragile goods, use padding or insert plywood between the goods to prevent the goods from moving within the container.
6. When loading pallet cargo, it is necessary to accurately grasp the internal dimensions of the container and the external dimensions of the cargo packaging, so as to calculate the number of loaded pieces, so as to achieve the purpose of minimizing abandoned positions and loading more cargoes.
7. When the container is loaded with a forklift truck, it will be limited by the free lifting height of the machine and the height of the gantry. Therefore, if conditions permit, the forklift container can be loaded with two layers at a time, but there must be a certain gap up and down. If the conditions do not allow loading two layers at a time, when loading the second layer, considering the free lifting height of the forklift truck and the possible lifting height of the forklift truck mast, the lifting height of the mast should be the first The height of the first layer of goods minus the free lifting height, so that the second layer of goods can be loaded on the upper layer of the third layer of goods.
In addition, a forklift truck with an ordinary lifting capacity of 2 tons is generally used, and its free lifting height is about 1250px. But there is also a forklift truck with full free lifting height. This kind of machine is not affected by the lifting height of the gantry as long as the height of the container allows, and can easily stack two layers of goods. In addition, it should be noted that there should be dunnage under the cargo so that the fork can be pulled out smoothly.
Finally, it is best not to pack the goods naked, at least to have packaging, and do not blindly save space and cause damage to the goods. General goods will also be packaged. Only large machines such as boilers and building materials will be more troublesome and must be bundled and fastened to prevent loosening. In fact, as long as you are careful and careful, there will not be too many problems.