MARITIME NEWS &
Views: 146 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-03-29 Origin: Site
This guide provides you with comprehensive information about shipping from China to the United States. With the advent of technology and the growth of economic relations between countries, international shipping has become a key point in influencing these connections. With regard to distance, time and cost, there are different methods of transporting goods from one country to another, each with its advantages and disadvantages.
This is the content list:
You have several options when shipping from China to USA. The main three are:
· Sea freight
· Air transport
· Express shipping
We'll look at the first two options, sea and air.
Ocean freight forwarder is a company that handles the actual transportation of goods. They know the right way to pack and handle goods.
The customs broker will process the documents and obtain government permission. They can also handle the delivery of items through a freight company, as they are usually located near ports.
We have already discussed the tasks that freight forwarders handle. They usually work with customs brokers.
Because ocean shipping from China to the U.S. requires long travel times and can involve multiple port calls, it can be a lengthy process and may seem complicated on paper.
Here is the simplified process:
1. The first part of the process is to transfer the goods from the supplier to the freight forwarder's location.
2. The next part will be customs clearance. This is required for each port depending on the country where the supplier is located (in this case, China).
3. Customs clearance will be handled by a licensed broker.
4. The next step will be to handle and load other cargo in preparation for the actual shipping.
5. The freight forwarder will then select the shipping, which will handle the actual shipping from one port to another. They usually do this according to the schedule required to deliver the goods.
6. Once the cargo arrives at a U.S. port, it must go through import clearance.
7. Now, the cargo must be unloaded from the ship, separated from other cargo, and prepared so that the consignee can then pick it up.
The shipment can now be delivered to you, or you can arrange to send it directly to another location, such as an Amazon FBA fulfillment center.
By choosing air freight when ship from China to USA, you can ship products from the factory to your warehouse, or anywhere you want in a matter of days.
Currently, only 5% of the world's cargo is transported by air, but it accounts for 30% of its value. This means more valuable items are shipped by air.
If your product is valuable or time is of the essence to you, then shipping by air will be your best option.
Air shipping from China is very simple and requires minimal action on your part. Here is a simplified process:
1. You get the services of a freight company.
2. You provide details of your shipment to the shipping company, including your suppliers.
3. According to the arrangement with the supplier, the goods are delivered to the airport.
4. The freight company will be responsible for export clearance.
5. The cargo was loaded onto the plane and flown to an airport in the United States.
6. The goods are unloaded and passed through customs.
7. The goods are then shipped to the consignee address and taxes and customs charges are paid.
When shipping by sea, you must be familiar with shipping Incoterms. Incoterms are trade terms used internationally to determine where and when goods are transferred.
Here are some of the more commonly used trade terms:
Free on Board (FOB) – This term is used to indicate when title passes from buyer to seller.
Cost and Freight Shipping CFR Shipping – This term is used to indicate that the seller needs to pay for all costs and shipping costs required to move the goods from one location to another. When shipped in accordance with CFR, the risk of damage and loss then passes to the seller.
Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) – Under CIF Shipping, the seller will arrange the entire process of the shipment by sea. The seller will also provide the documents needed to obtain the goods once the goods arrive at the U.S. port.
DDU Incoterm, which is short for “delivered duty unpaid,” is an international commerce term (incoterm) which means that the seller will deliver the goods as soon as they are made available at an agreed-upon location in the country to which they are imported.
Under the Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) Incoterm rules, the seller assumes all responsibilities and costs for delivering the goods to the named place of destination. The seller must pay both export and import formalities, fees, duties and taxes.
These are just terms you need to be familiar with. Don't be fooled by the fact that you will be the one arranging the shipment and you will also be the one receiving the shipment.
FCL and LCL are two important terms you must be familiar with when shipping from China.
FCL stands for Full Container Load, while LCL stands for Less Container Load.
Under FCL shipping, you will pay for the entire container. This means your shipment will not be mixed with other items.
It doesn't matter if the container is not full because you will pay for it. By now, you may be aware that FCL shipping can be very expensive.
For FCL shipping from China, you only need to focus on the following standard size containers:
· 20ft Container
· 40ft Container
· 40ft High Cube
Following are other differences between FCL and LCL shipping:
· Under the FCL, the container will be loaded at the supplier's location.
· Under LCL, your shipment will be consolidated with other shipments at port or origin.
· FCL shipment, bill of lading issued by the shipping company.
· In the case of LCL shipment, the bill of lading will be issued by the freight forwarder.
· LCL actually charges more when measured in shipping cost per unit.
1. It is easier to track the FCL directly through the shipping company's website. This way, you can accurately predict its arrival.
2. Your belongings will be safer under the FCL. FCL means your items will not be mixed with other shipments. There will be less risk of your cargo being damaged or lost because there will be fewer people handling it.
3. FCL can process faster because your cargo will be the only one that will be loaded into the container. Under LCL, the goods will be combined with other goods first.
4. As mentioned earlier, when broken down by unit cost, the FCL is cheaper.
These are the advantages of FCL shipping, but keep in mind that LCL is better when your shipment is smaller. As your business grows and your shipments get larger, a FCL may become a more cost-effective option for you.
International shipping is equally complex and expensive, especially when it comes to long-distance shipments. When importing from China to USA, it is important to focus on shipping companies and ways to reduce shipping costs and time.
The trade route from China to the US is complex but extremely important. There are effective ways to save time and money and ensure a more cost effective shipping process. The first step is to determine which shipping method to choose to transport your goods.
For small, individual items, you can use a regular mail service. However, assuming you wish to ship larger quantities, there are three main shipping methods to consider: ocean, AIR and express.
Choosing the right shipping method is the most important factor in saving time and money.
Sea freight is by far the most common mode of international transportation. Approximately 90% of all shipping is done by sea. If you are transporting a large amount of cargo, this should be your first choice.
Ocean carriers are capable of transporting huge weights and quantities of cargo. This is probably the most cost effective way to ship from China to the United States, with relatively low CO2 emissions compared to other options. Ocean shipping is usually less restrictive than air freight.
While there are not many drawbacks associated with shipping by sea, the ones that do exist are considerable. First, it takes a long time. Airplanes are about 30 times faster than ships. Port congestion, customs issues and weather can also significantly slow down the process. Due to the heavy-duty nature of ocean freight, your cargo is more prone to damage than other modes of transportation.
Ocean freight is divided into two types of shipments.
· Full Container Load (FCL): These are shipment orders that are large enough to fill an entire container.
· Less than Container Load (LCL): When cargo loads are not large enough to fill an entire container, they can be combined with several other shipments to make up the space. Since consolidating LCL shipments requires additional work, it is usually slower and more expensive. There is also an increased likelihood of damaged or lost cargo.
Ocean freight is measured in cubic feet and charged by volume. Almost any item can be shipped by ocean freight.
In addition to ocean freight, there are usually additional costs, such as
Customs security surcharges
· Consolidation charges (for LCL only)
· Terminal handling charges
· Customs brokerage fees
· Pick-up and delivery charges
· Insurance costs
· Fuel surcharges
· Storage charges
· Routing charges
Air freight is the fastest way to import goods from China. It is often used by importers who coordinate time-sensitive international shipments. Typically, ocean shipments take 20 to 30 days to cross continents from China to the United States. Air freight is safe, reliable, and takes hours to reach its destination.
The main disadvantage of air transportation is that it is expensive. It is usually 5 times more expensive than trucking and 16 times more expensive than shipping by sea. It is also limited in transporting large and bulky items.
Air freight rates are determined by weight and volume. Carriers charge by volumetric weight or actual weight, depending on which figure is more expensive.
In addition to freight rates, shipping costs can increase due to additional charges. Final freight rates usually include the following charges.
· Fuel surcharges
· Security surcharges
· Terminal handling charges
· Airport transfer charges
· Customs brokerage fees
· Pick-up and delivery costs
· Cargo insurance
· Accessorial charges
Express freight is usually used to transport goods in a short period of time. It is only cost effective for shipping small items, so for larger products air or sea freight should be used.
The main reason it is such a time saver is that it is a simplified service that is done entirely by one company. courier companies such as UPS, FedEx and DHL are considered express freight carriers.
When you choose shipping options from China to the United States, you need to consider more than just the actual cost of shipping. You must also consider the cost of missed sales if your item does not reach you on time.
The following are the delivery times for various shipping options from China.
When you choose to ship from China, you should allow three days. If the supplier delivers the item to the warehouse, it will be faster. There are faster services than this, but these are very expensive.
Standard air freight takes about 7-10 days. Now, you may be wondering why express shipping is faster than air shipping, and both use air freight to ship your goods.
The difference is in the handling. Handling express shipping is much faster than regular air shipping.
Door to door shipping from China to the United States takes 28 to 40 days. Most of the time is taken up by the actual shipping of the ship through the ocean.
Customs delays and bad weather can also impact ocean shipping. Therefore, if you ship by ocean, do not expect to receive your shipment immediately.
As mentioned above, total transit time for ocean shipments from China to the United States depends on the specific origin and destination ports used. The following examples will give you an idea of actual ocean-freight transit times between different ports in China and the USA:
· Guangzhou to Los Angeles – 26 days LCL
· Guangzhou to Miami – 38 days LCL
· Dalian to Los Angeles – 26 days LCL
· Huangpu to Miami or Charleston – 40 days LCL
· Huangpu to Los Angeles – 35 days LCL
· Huangpu to New York – 40 days LCL and FCL
· Jiangmen to Charleston – 42 days LCL
· Jiangmen to Los Angeles – 27 days LCL
· Jiangmen to Miami – 44 days LCL
· Ningbo to Chicago – 22 days LCL, 29 days FCL
· Ningbo to Houston – 34 days LCL, 36 days FCL
· Ningbo to Los Angeles – 17 days LCL, 13 days FCL
· Ningbo to New York – 23 days LCL, 35 days FCL
· Ningbo to Seattle – 17 days LCL, 23 days FCL
· Shanghai to Atlanta – 29 days LCL, 34 days FCL
· Shanghai to Boston – 35 days LCL, 37 days FCL
· Shanghai to Charleston – 34 days LCL, 37 days FCL
· Shanghai to Chicago – 28 days LCL, 37 days FCL
· Shanghai to Houston – 33 days LCL, 39 days FCL
· Shanghai to Los Angeles – 22 days LCL and FCL
· Shanghai to Miami – 46 days LCL, 38 days FCL
· Shanghai to New York – 37 days LCL, 38 days FCL
· Shanghai to Seattle – 24 days LCL
· Shenzhen to Charleston – 40 days LCL
· Shenzhen to Chicago – 30 days LCL
· Shenzhen to Los Angeles – 23 days LCL, 19 days FCL
· Shenzhen to Miami – 44 days LCL
· Shenzhen to New York – 38 days LCL, 36 days FCL
· Shenzhen to San Francisco – 25 days LCL
· Qingdao to Atlanta – 39 days LCL, 35 days FCL
· Qingdao to Chicago – 25 days LCL, 24 days FCL
· Qingdao to Houston – 37 days LCL, 36 days FCL
· Qingdao to Los Angeles – 24 days LCL
· Qingdao to New York – 40 days LCL, 36 days FCL
· Qingdao to Seattle – 20 days LCL
· Tianjin to Houston – 35 days LCL
· Tianjin to Miami – 42 days LCL
· Tianjin to Seattle – 35 days LCL, 36 days FCL
· Xiamen to Los Angeles – 20 days LCL
· Xiamen to New York – 34 days LCL
· Fuzhou to Houston – 23 days FCL
· Fuzhou to Los Angeles – 20 days FCL
· Lianyungang to Boston, Savannah or Oakland – 36 days FCL
· Ningbo to Oakland, Long Beach, Norfolk, Savannah, or Baltimore – 36 days FCL
· Shanghai to Baltimore – 36 days FCL
· Shanghai to Savannah – 29 days FCL
· Shanghai to Long Beach – 25 days FCL
· Shanghai to Tacoma – 36 days FCL
· Shekou to Los Angeles – 23 days FCL
· Shekou to New York – 36 days FCL
· Qingdao to Charleston – 35 days FCL
· Qingdao to Long Beach – 19 days FCL
· Qingdao to Oakland – 24 days FCL
· Xiamen to Charleston, Houston, Oakland, or Savannah – 36 days FCL
Import/export customs clearance may seem complicated, and in many cases it is because of it. However, it is an inevitable aspect of shipping and air freight from China to the US. As such, it is something that every supplier, consignee and intermediary engaged in international trade must be prepared for.
1. Commercial Invoice
2. Packing List
3. Certificate of Origin
4. Letter of Credit or other payment terms (depending on the contract between the parties involved)
5. Bill of Lading for ocean freight or Airway Bill for air freight (Your freight forwarder should provide this)
Your carrier will not assume any responsibility for helping you with customs formalities. However, the freight forwarder will charge a fee to take care of them. Even so, your business must take responsibility for certain steps. They include providing accurate information and documentation that accompanies your shipment.
As a rule, you need to make sure that all exports from China to the United States are accompanied by the following documents, as they will be required by the customs authorities in both countries.
· The Port of Shanghai is one of the most important container shipping ports in the world.
· It has the largest automated container terminal on the planet.
· The Shanghai port complex is vast and consists of a deep-water port and a shallow water area.
· It is the ideal port of departure if you are importing products from factories in Jiangsu and Zhejiang.
Owned By: Shanghai International Port Company Ltd.
Annual Container Volume: >40 million TEUs.
· Second largest container transshipment hub in China.
· It mainly serves as an export point for the country's northeast region.
· Container traffic here has increased since the establishment of the nearby Liaoning Free Trade Zone.
· China's northernmost unfrozen port, located on the shores of the Yellow Sea.
· Offers 80 berths.
Owned By: Dalian Port Group Co., Ltd.
Annual Container Volume: >9 million TEUs.
· It consists of five terminals (including a modern container terminal) and more than 300 berths.
· Is a high capacity gateway for exports from Zhejiang Province.
· Serves as a strategic spillover from the nearby port of Shanghai.
· A $1.6 billion port expansion is planned, including a significant increase in container capacity.
Owned By: Ningbo Zhoushan Port Co., Ltd.
Annual Container Volume: >26 million TEUs.
· Xiamen is a huge port, consisting of 9 container terminals and 74 berths.
· China's leading port for service to and from Taiwan.
· Ranked as the eighth largest container gateway in China.
· Origin and destination for 68 routes to 50 countries/regions, including the United States.
· Port stretches over 30 kilometers.
· A high-capacity hub for global shipping.
Owned By: Xiamen Port Authority.
Annual Container Volume: >10 million TEUs.
· The port has a steady container throughput to and from some 700 ports around the world.
· The main export port of China's industrial powerhouse Shandong Province.
· One of the ten busiest ports in the world.
· Located on the shores of the Yellow Sea.
· The Port of Qingdao has two main container terminals: Qingdao Air China International Container Terminal and Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal.
Owned By: Qingdao Port (Group) Co., Ltd.
Annual Container Volume: >18 million TEUs.
Other Ports in China:
In addition to the five ports listed above, there are also ocean shipping services to the United States from the following ports of origin in China.
· Shenzhen (Chiwan, Shekou, Yantian)
· Guangzhou (Huangpu, Nansha)
· Approximately one-fifth of all cargo entering the United States arrives through the Port of Los Angeles.
· It is the most important trade gateway to the United States, with the highest tonnage and value of throughput in the country.
· It is the largest port in the United States, covering nearly 70 miles of California's coastline.
· Facilities include eight container terminals and more than 80 cranes.
· More companies' cargo arrives through Los Angeles than any other U.S. port.
· Located on San Pedro Bay, near the Port of Long Beach.
· Voted the number one container port in the United States every year since 2000.
Owned By: City of Los Angeles.
Annual Container Volume: >9 million TEUs.
· An important gateway for trade with China and other parts of Asia.
· Long Beach is located next to the Port of Los Angeles.
· More than a quarter of all container traffic to and from the United States passes through Los Angeles and Long Beach.
· The ideal port of arrival for consignees in the western United States.
· Long Beach is the second largest container port in the United States.
· A huge port covering 40 kilometers.
· 3 km from downtown Long Beach.
Owned By: City of Long Beach.
Annual Container Volume: >8 million TEUs.
· The Port of Savannah is located 30 km from the ocean on the Savannah River.
· A popular port for unloading imports from China.
· Has the largest and fastest growing container terminal in North America.
· A logical choice for importers from the eastern states and even the Midwest.
· Direct access to interstate highways.
Owned By: Georgia Ports Authority.
Annual Container Volume: >4 million TEUs.
· A convenient port of arrival for businesses in the northwestern United States.
· A major redevelopment of Port Terminal 5 is recently underway.
· The upgrades will increase container capacity and enable the accommodation of larger vessels.
· The facility includes one of the largest container terminals on the U.S. West Coast.
Owned By: Northwest Seaport Alliance.
Annual Container Volume: >3.5 million TEUs.
· One of the largest cargo ports in the United States.
· A convenient gateway for cargo shipped from China to the southeastern states.
· The Port of Miami is affectionately known as the cargo gateway to the Americas.
· Located on Dodge Island on the Miami River.
· Over 7.4 million tons of ocean cargo are handled here each year.
· 1,850 kilometers from the Panama Canal.
· The largest container port in Florida and the ninth largest in the United States.
· One of the most popular ports for door-to-door ocean freight from China to U.S. businesses
Owned By: Multiple owners.
Annual Container Volume: >1 million TEUs.
OTHER OCEAN FREIGHT PORTS IN USA:
In addition to the five ports listed above, ocean freight services can be provided to the following U.S. container ports:
· New York
· San Francisco
· New Orleans
· Port Everglades
In addition to various shipping companies on the American route, all regular freight forwarders engaged in American route transportation must have a freight company registered with FMC in the United States and have the official code of NVOCC. Otherwise, if any problems occur during transportation in the United States, they will not be able to get the corresponding legal protection.
Shipping to the United States is a cost-effective transportation channel. Different routes have different shipping costs. Shipping to the United States generally includes: ocean freight rate and surcharges, such as fuel surcharge BAF, currency adjustment surcharge CAF, peak season surcharge PSS, overweight fee OWS, and AMS to the United States. In addition, there are some miscellaneous fees, such as THC at the port of departure, ISPS, CTF, PIER PASS at the port of destination, etc. In addition, there is an AMS fee of USD25/ticket.
1. Before shipment, the shipper (exporter) needs to prepare INVOICE, PACKING LIST, and customers who need foreign customs clearance need to provide the accurate H.S.CODE of the product.
2. Before shipment, the forwarder needs to sign a customs clearance power of attorney (general trade) with the US importer.
3. The exporter needs to provide the manufacturer of the goods, the final consignee, and the importer's information to the forwarder in order to declare the ISF.
4. If the exporter does not have a company in the United States, the company name and EIN number of the final consignee (such as a cooperative warehouse) must be provided.
5. Do not export counterfeit brand goods to the United States. Once detected by the US customs, the goods will be confiscated, and the customs will continue to inspect the exporter's goods exported to the United States. The customs inspection not only delays the delivery, but also generates hundreds of thousands of dollars in inspection fees for each inspection.
6. Goods exported to the United States cannot be packed in logs.
7. The US Customs stipulates that all products exported from China must be marked with MADE IN CHINA.
8. American goods need to send AMS.
9. The US anti-dumping policy on Chinese goods needs attention.
U.S. shipping customs clearance is basically the whole container clearance, and it is rarely a single ticket clearance. Once there is a problem with one ticket in a container, the entire container will be detained, and it is a long thing to wait for release. U.S. shipping customs clearance must know in advance the points and customs clearance documents that need to be paid attention to for customs clearance:
1. The customs will usually inform the release or not (sea freight) within 48 hours.
2. Some cargo ships exported by sea from the United States have not yet arrived at the port, and the customs has decided to inspect them because there are doubts in the declaration and customs clearance documents.
3. The U.S. shipping customs broker needs to send all documents, including the originals or copies of the importer's original documents, to the customs, and the customs personnel will review whether to release or EXAM after checking the written documents. In this case, the release may be around three days.
Clothing and accessories account for a large proportion of the commodities frequently inspected by U.S. shipping, and 22% are seized. This is followed by consumer electronics, which accounted for 18% of seizures, followed by shoes/watches/jewelry/pharmaceuticals/personal care products/handbags/wallets, etc.
If you encounter the U.S. customs inspection, the general inspection time is about 2-6 working days for X-ray scanning, about 2-3 weeks for unpacking inspection, about 15 days after boarding the ship, and 2-3 days for customs clearance. Therefore, when shipping cargo owners in the United States are inspecting goods at customs, they should avoid goods with a high inspection rate and sensitive goods, so as to be able to clear customs quickly.
The weight requirements for goods in the United States are very strict. The weight limit (cargo weight + cabinet weight) is mainly affected by the weight limit of the inland points in the United States. Generally, 20GP is 17.3 tons, and 40HQ is 19.5 tons. However, there are different weight limit requirements according to different ports. If it is required by customers, it is really necessary to transport overweight goods to inland points in the United States. Generally speaking, there are three processing methods:
1. Concealing the declaration, but if you are checked and weighed when you are on the road in the United States, you will face heavy penalties. This method is not recommended.
2. Basic port allocation, after unloading at the basic port, the overweight parts are allocated and then transshipped separately. However, if the inland point to be transshipped is far away, the cost is high.
3. Transfer from the railway to the inland point on the basic port terminal, and then arrange the transfer of overweight trailers.
Unless you are an expert in international shipping, it is advisable to engage the services of a freight forwarder. A freight forwarder is a qualified and experienced person who can help you find an efficient and effective solution to transport your cargo from China to the United States.
A freight forwarder can save you a lot of time dealing with paperwork and customs requirements. As your shipping guide, your freight forwarder can use their contacts and knowledge to help you save money by getting the best price and can find alternative shipping routes in case of inclement weather.
No matter the scope or size of your business, STU Supply Chain can simplify the process of exporting from China to the United States. In addition to the benefits of online quote requests, reservations, payments and shipment tracking, we offer you access to the resources of the top 20 global shipping companies.
When shipping from China to the United States, there is no substitute for experience. Whether you are choosing a shipping method, looking for a supplier, or deciding on a freight forwarding service, it pays to work with someone who is reliable and experienced. While international shipping can be daunting, you can succeed with a careful approach.
If you need more information or assistance from a world-class international shipping company, contact STU Supply Chain today!